Monday, April 11, 2011

Pipe, Pipe Size and Pipe Wall Thickness

In the previous posting I promise to write about Piping System and Fabrication as full detail as I can, and here it is the article that I promise to all of you.
Piping includes pipe, flanges, fittings, bolting, gaskets, valves, and the pressurecontaining portions of other piping components. It also includes pipe hangers and supports and other items necessary to prevent overpressurization and overstressing of the pressure-containing components. It is evident that pipe is one element or a part of piping. Therefore, pipe sections when joined with fittings, valves, and other mechanical equipment and properly supported by hangers and supports, are called piping.

Pipe is a tube with round cross section conforming to the dimensional requirements of :
-    ASME B36.10M Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
-    ASME B36.19M Stainless Steel Pipe

Pipe Size
Initially a system known as iron pipe size (IPS) was established to designate the pipe size. The size represented the approximate inside diameter of the pipe in inches. An IPS 6 pipe is one whose inside diameter is approximately 6 inches (in). Users started to call the pipe as 2-in, 4-in, 6-in pipe and so on. To begin, each pipe size was produced to have one thickness, which later was termed as standard (STD)
or standard weight (STD.WT.). The outside diameter of the pipe was standardized. As the industrial requirements demanded the handling of higher-pressure fluids, pipes were produced having thicker walls, which came to be known as extra strong (XS) or extra heavy (XH). The higher pressure requirements increased further, requiring thicker wall pipes. Accordingly, pipes were manufactured with double extra strong (XXS) or double extra heavy (XXH) walls while the standardized outside diameters are unchanged. With the development of stronger and corrosion-resistant piping materials, the need for thinner wall pipe resulted in a new method of specifying pipe size and wall thickness. The designation known as nominal pipe size (NPS) replaced IPS, and the term schedule (SCH) was invented to specify the nominal wall thickness of pipe.

Nominal pipe size (NPS) is a dimensionless designator of pipe size. It indicates standard pipe size when followed by the specific size designation number without an inch symbol. For example, NPS 2 indicates a pipe whose outside diameter is 2.375 in. The NPS 12 and smaller pipe has outside diameter greater than the size designator (say, 2, 4, 6, . . .). However, the outside diameter of NPS 14 and larger pipe is the same as the size designator in inches. For example, NPS 14 pipe has an outside diameter equal to 14 in. The inside diameter will depend upon the pipe wall thickness specified by the schedule number. Refer to ASME B36.10M or ASME B36.19M. Refer to App. E2 or E2M.

Diameter nominal (DN) is also a dimensionless designator of pipe size in the metric unit system, developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO). It indicates standard pipe size when followed by the specific size designation number without a millimeter symbol. For example, DN 50 is the equivalent designation of NPS 2. Refer to Table A1.1 for NPS and DN pipe size equivalents

Pipe Wall Thickness
Schedule is expressed in numbers (5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 20S, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160). A schedule number indicates the approximate value of the expression 1000 P/S, where P is the service pressure and S is the allowable stress, both expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). The higher the schedule number, the thicker the pipe is. The outside diameter of each pipe size is standardized.
Therefore, a particular nominal pipe size will have a different inside diameter depending upon the schedule number specified. Note that the original pipe wall thickness designations of STD, XS, and XXS
have been retained; however, they correspond to a certain schedule number depending upon the nominal pipe size. The nominal wall thickness of NPS 10 and smaller schedule 40 pipe is same as that of STD.WT. pipe. Also, NPS 8 and smaller schedule 80 pipe has the same wall thickness as XS pipe.
The schedule numbers followed by the letter S are per ASME B36.19M, and they are primarily intended for use with stainless steel pipe. The pipe wall thickness specified by a schedule number followed by the letter S may or may not be the same as that specified by a schedule number without the letter S. Refer to ASME B36.19M and ASME B36.10M.10,11 ASMEB36.19M does not cover all pipe sizes. Therefore, the dimensional requirements of ASME B36.10M apply to stainless steel pipe of the sizes and schedules
not covered by ASME B36.19M.

That's all for now and I will continue this article in the next post.

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